My son ordered a book in the flipkart and i went through the book. The name of the book is BIRDS OF THE INDIAN SUB CONTINENT After reading the book I gathered the general information of the birds. So let us know about the birds.
Since birds do not have houses where do they store food? In their throat. Birds have a bulge below their throat called the “storage bag”. Food stays there and can be coughed up for chicks to eat. Not having teeth is not an obstacle for birds. They have a special grinding organ called a GIZZARD. Food is crushed by the muscles as it sloshes around the giazzard. Some birds swallow grit and small stones, these stay in the gizzard and help to grind the food.Not only can birds breathe oxygen into their lungs they can also store this flying fuel in tiny sacs all over their body.
Hunting birds have eyes on the front of their heads so that the sight from both eyes overlaps and they can see exactly how far away their victims are. No need for binoculars. Birds which are eaten by other animals have eyes on the side of their head so that they can look around for danger.
A nest is a cradle in which eggs and baby birds are kept safe from enemies such as snakes and rats. Nests can be holes in the trees mounds of earth or piles of branches. Birds build their nests from all sorts of things. Most nests are made of twigs and leaves. Before starting a family male birds have to attract a mate. After the female bird has mated she lays her eggs. When the chicks hatch they eat a lot. once they are able to fly they leave the nest. When a chick is small it is called a nestling which is very helpless.When it hatches and is blind at birth.All it does is eat and grow in size/ When they baby birds leave home they are known as fledglings. Many are devoured by animals like cats and dogs.A bird goes through so much for its survival.
The bones of a bird are different from ours. Most birds’ bones are hollow like straws as solid bones would make them too heavy to fly. The feathers not only keep the bird warm and dry but it also enables it to stay in the air. These feathers are made up of keratinlike our hair and nails. The primary feathers at the front of the wings can twist like propellers to power the bird through the air. The secondary flight feathers at the back of the wings help lift the bird up in the air/ Tail feathers are used for storing and stopping different feathers for different motions. That’s flight engineering..
The feather is divided into three parts the vane, the strong shaft and the quill. Each flight feather has a million fine strands called barbules. These hook arround each other and held the feather in shape even in extremely windy weather. Birds keep their feathers clean and tidy by preening. They nibble each feather to zip the barbules back together and to get rid of insects
FIELD GUIDE BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY