The city of Harappa was divided into two parts the Citadel and the Lower city. The Citadel was home to the great public bath as well as large residential buildings that housed around 5000 people. It also had two large assembly halls but there is no evidence of the presence of any Kings priests armies palaces or temples.
The Lower city was laid out in a grid like pattern. Most people lived here and seemed to have been traders or artisans. They resided with others who were in the same profession as them. Potters’ kilns dyers’ vats metal working bead suggest that the people of Harappa had a wide range of occupations.
The city had good flood control measures and irrigation systems in place. In spite of this evidence suggests that Mohenjodaro was destroyed and rebuilt seven times. This was because of the damage caused by severe floods and the river changing its course.
Weapons and tools were made from copper and bronze but not iron. The people or Harappa seemed to have lived peaceful lives with little fear of invasion. When they Aryans arrived from the Northwest they hardly encountered any resistance.
Some artifacts that were excavated from the area include soapstone seals like the humped Brahmani bull and Pashupati. Other carved figures that were discovered include the bronze dancing girl and the statue of a priest and a man’s torso.
Seals which were discovered during excavations that had pictures of Gods animals and other inscriptions. Some of these seals were used to stamp day on trade goods. Goods made in the Indus valley traveled as far as Mesopotamia [ present day Iraq] Afghanistan and other parts of India.
Some implements and cave paintings from this period have been found in many parts of Asia. There is also evidence suggesting the domestication animals, village settlements and wheel turned pottery dating from the middle of the sixth century BC. These were discovered on the foothills of Singh and Baluchistan, both in Pakistan.
Archeologists R.D. Bannerjee and Sir John Marshall rediscovered this historic site in the 1920’s giving the world a peek into ancient cultures and civilizations.
Courtesy THE HINDU YOUNG WORLD